- 1.एनआरएन(NRN) सम्बन्धि जानकारी
- 2.सामुहिक लगानी संवन्धी प्रश्नावलीहरु र जवाफहरूको संगालो
- 4.Apply for NRN Card
Who is NRN?
The term ‘Non Resident Nepali’ (NRN) defined by the law made by the Parliament of the Nepal. This term is used to indicate two types of People. It is used for persons of Nepali origin holding citizenship of countries other than member states of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) and Nepali nationals residing outside of SAARC member states.
Why was NRNA established?
The Non Resident Nepali Association (NRNA) was established to unite the Nepali Diaspora; utilise their knowledge, skills, resources in the interest of Nepal and involve them in the socio-economic development of Nepal and the Nepali people.
How was NRNA Established?
The idea of establishing a global Nepali organization (NRNA) was conceptualized by Nepalese living in Russia in 2002, later to globalize and materialize the idea, a few Nepali community leaders residing in various countries of the world met in London, in 2003 and decided to form a Coordination Committee to unite the Nepali diaspora. They also discussed the possibility of organising an international conference of NRNs in Nepal. The idea quickly got the support of the Government of Nepal and the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FNCCI). This led to the joint organisation of First Non-Resident Nepali Conference on 11-14 October 2003. The assembled NRN delegates of that conference decided to join their hands together to organise NRNA as a common forum of NRNs.
When was NRNA Established?
The date of inauguration of the First NRN Global Conference, i e., 11th October 2003 is considered to be the establishment date of NRNA. 11th October is also declared as NRN day by Nepal Government. The formal registration of NRNA by the Government of Nepal was on 20 October 2013.
What is an NRN Card?
NRN Card is an identity card issued to a Non-Resident Nepali by the Government of Nepal. NRNcard entitles card holder various benefits as listed in the NRN Act and bylaws. It is issued to those who approach the concerned government body.
Which agency issues the NRN Card?
The NRN card is issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Kathmandu(+977014200182). Outside of Nepal, the NRN cards are issued by the Nepali Embassies and Missions.
What are privileges of having NRN Card?
- -Identity of the status of the person as NRN
- -Free Visa to enter and stay in Nepal (for persons having citizenship of countries other than SAARC Countries)
- -Right to open a bank account in convertible foreign currency
- -Eligibility to make investment in convertible foreign currency
- -Provision to repatriate proceeds of the investment out of Nepal in convertible Foreign currency if investment made in the same currency
- -Purchase and sale of land (area as referred in NRNA bylaws) to limited extent Inheritance of ancestral property and ownership of that property in Nepal
- -Tax Exemption on initial capital of investment
- -Certificate of Investment Tax Exemption on upto NPR15 Lakhs remittance to close relatives of NRN in one fiscal year for personal expenses
- -Tax exemption on the remitted funds via formal banking channel for the Social, Political, Cultural, Religious, Charity, Sports and Disaster Relief Projects
- -Rights to establish Industry and Business and enjoy investment facilities as enjoyed by Foreigners
What is the process of obtaining NRN Card?
The NRNs willing to obtain NRN Card have to register their names by providing their detailed information as prescribed in the format stated in NRN Bylaws 2009 (2066) and put forward the application to Nepal Government – Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Kathmandu or Nepal Embassy and Mission offices abroad.
List of documents required for obtaining NRN Card?
FOREIGN NATIONALS OF NEPALI ORIGIN:
- -A duly filled in application form (as prescribed in NRN Bylaws 2009(2066)
- -Naturalization Certificate and its copy provided by respective country
- -Copy of Passport issued by respective country
Citizenship Certificate and a copy of it as a proof of Nepali Origin for person who earlier held Nepali citizenship)
- -Copy of Citizenship Certificate of Father/Mother/Grandfather/Grandmother or any other document that proves their Nepali Nationality and evidence of relationship
- -Document/proof of any profession or business in the country of current nationality
- -Document/proof of employment in the country of current nationality.
- -A recent passport size photo (for the application form)
- -Two recent auto size photo (for the identity card)
- -Application and Card Fee
- NEPALI CITIZENS RESIDING ABROAD:
- -A duly filled in application form (as prescribed in NRN Bylaws 2009(2066).
- -Nepali Citizenship Certificate and its copy
- -Nepali Passport and its copy
- -Documents related to business/profession in the current country of residence
- -Document/proof of employment in the current country of residence
- -A recent passport size photo
- -Two recent auto size photo (for the identity card)
- -Application and Card Fee
- What is the fee structure of getting NRN Card?
- Application Fee: USD 20 outside of Nepal or Rs. 1500 in Nepal
Card Fee for Foreign Citizen of Nepali Origin:
Countries of Europe, North America, South America, Australia Region including New Zealand, Japan and Korea of Asia Pacific Region – USD 500
Countries except above listed – USD 250
Card fee for Nepali Citizen residing outside of Nepal: USD 50
- What is the validity of NRN Card?
- The validity of the NRN cards is 10 (Ten) years for Foreign Nationals of Nepali Origin and 2 (Two) years for Nepali citizens residing abroad.
- Who are eligible to get NRN Card?
- Foreign citizen of Nepali Origin or Nepali Citizen residing outside of Nepal are eligible to get NRN Card
- Is it necessary to get affiliation of NRNA to obtain NRN card?
- No, affiliation with NRNA is not compulsary.
- Is foreign Spouse of NRN eligible to get NRN Card?
- The NRN card is given only to those who are either foreign nationals of Nepali origin or who are Nepali citizens residing abroad.
- Can NRN card holders exercise their voting/ political rights?
- No, the NRN Cardholders are not automatically given political rights.
- Do NRNs need visa to enter and stay in Nepal?
- The foreign nationals of Nepali origin do need a valid visa to enter into and stay in Nepal. But such visa is issued free of charges (gratis) at the entry points as well as in the missions and at the immigration offices for persons with NRN Cards. Nepali Citizens residing abroad do not need any visa to enter into and exit from Nepal.
- Do NRNs get on arrival visa in Nepal?
- NRN Card holders get Tourist visa (Gratis) on arrival at the airport. The rule governing visa for persons of Nepali Origin without NRN Card is the same as applied to any other foreign national.
- What is NRN Visa?
- NRN Visa is Tourist (Gratis) visa issued to an NRN Card holder upon arrival at the Nepal airport. It is issued for given number of days as pre-determined by the Department of Immigration, Nepal Government.
NRN Visa can be extended by applying at Department of Immigration (Non Tourist Visa Section) along with specified documents. It is extended for maximum of one year at a time. NRN visa both at the airport and DOI is issued free of charges till the date of validity of NRN card. NRN card holders are not allowed to stay in Nepal without acquiring NRN Visa.
- What are the documents required for obtaining the NRN Visa?
- Online Application available at the DOI website
- NRN Card issued by Ministry of Foreign Affairs and its missions based abroad (Original and Photocopy)
- Valid Passport
- Photocopy of Passport and latest Nepalese Visa
- Health Certificate
- Does NRN Card work as the visa for the NRNs?
- No, the card only enables the NRNs to obtain Visa free of charges.
- Do NRNs need to take visa after obtaining NRN Card?
- Yes, but visa fee is waived (no visa fee).
- Are NRN Card holders allowed to stay in Nepal for 10 Consecutive Years?
- Yes, but they need to renew their visas every year at Immigration Department of Nepal.
- Does NRN have to relinquish their Nepali citizenship to obtain NRN card?
- As already stated, there are two types of NRNs. In case of Nepali citizens residing abroad, they do not have to relinquish their Nepali citizenship to obtain an NRN Card. In case of Foreign Nationals of Nepali Origin, the Nepali law specifies that a Nepali citizen whenever acquires a nationality of a foreign country, he or she automatically ceases to be a Nepali citizen
- Does Nepal Government recognize Dual Citizenship of NRNs?
- No, Nepal does not allow its citizens to hold dual nationality. But the current constitution has a provision of Non Resident Nepali citizenship of nationals of other countries. A person having a NRN citizenship enjoy economic, social and cultural rights. In other words, they cannot enjoy the political rights generally enjoyed by a citizen.
- Are NRNs allowed to work in Nepal as a full time and part time staffs of Civil, Private, NGOs sector or take up their professions like Lawyer, Consultant, and Journalist, Trekking Guide in Nepal?
- As of now, Foreign Citizen of Nepali Origin are not allowed to hold Civil and Government jobs where as they can apply for jobs at Private Companies and NGOs by taking work permit from concerned authorities. The Nepali Citizens residing abroad do not face such restriction. But once they start to stay in Nepal, they may lose the NRN status. Also, Foreign Nationals of Nepali origin have to follow the same rule as any other foreign national to pursue professions. With implementation of the NRN citizenship, the conditions may be eased significantly.
- Do underaged children (0-16 years) of NRNs require to take NRN card?
- No, the underaged children are neither eligible nor need to take NRN card.
- How can a foreign Spouse of NRN get NRN Card?
- As of today, a spouse of NRN with Foreign nationality cannot obtain NRN card unless he or she on their own right qualify for obtaining such card.
- Are NRNs allowed to hold bank account in Nepal?
Yes, any NRN with a valid NRN card can open and maintain a bank account.
- Are NRNs allowed to repatriate proceeds from the sale of their investment in Nepal (capital and profit) from Nepal to foreign Land?
- Yes, provided they have acquired necessary permits for investment in Nepal and have fulfilled the norms like tax clearances as stated in Clause No. 7 of NRN Act 2007 (2064).
- How can NRNs repatriate the profits from their investment in Nepal?
- They have to follow the same procedures as any other foreign investor.
- What are the procedures for NRNs to make investment in Nepal?
- They have to follow the procedure of foreign investment, i. e. they have to apply to Nepal Government -Department of Industry, get preliminary approval, register a company, take necessary sectoral approvals and start business.
- Can NRN invest and trade in IPO, FPO, mutual funds and bonds and debentures?
- Although the law does not prohibit such investment, but due to the lack of procedures, such investment has not been possible so far.
- What are the things to consider for NRNs in terms of Tax and Investment in Nepal?
- The Nepalese tax law has the provision of Resident and Non-Resident taxpayer. The resident taxpayers have to declare their global income and pay taxes accordingly. The Non Resident taxpayers have to declare their earnings in Nepal and pay taxes on their income in Nepal. The NRNs have to pay taxes as Non-Resident taxpayer on their earnings in Nepal.
- Can persons of Nepali origin apply for loans from financial institutions in Nepal?
- Individually, the persons of Nepali origin may not be able to obtain loan from financial institutions, but whenever they make investment, in Nepal, that is done through a company. In other words, they have to incorporate a company. That company is a bonafide Nepali legal entity and that company can obtain loans from financial institutions of Nepal
- Can NRN inherit property from their parents/relatives?
- Yes as per provisions stated in the NRNA Bylaws 2066, their right to inheritance as per Nepali law is allowed. The new civil code of Nepal allows the holders of NRN Citizenship the right to inherit own and maintain property at par with other Nepali citizens.
- Is there any restriction in the amount of property to be owned and inherited by persons of Nepali origin?
- Yes, There is a limit on buying property by foreign nationals of Nepali origin(NRN card holders). As stated in Clause No. 11 of NRN Bylaws 2066 which states NRN and their family members can purchase and own land and other fixed assest as specified below:
- Maximum of Two Ropanis in Kathmandu Valley
- Maximum of 8 Kathha in Metropolitan Cities of Terai
- Maximum of 4 Ropanis in Metropolitan Cities of Other Districts Except Clause
A and B
- Maximum of 1 Biggha in other areas of Terai Except Clause B
- Maximu of 10 Ropanis in other areas except Clause A, B, C and D.
- What will happen to the property which was owned by NRN when he was a resident of Nepal?
- As per the NRN Act and Rules, the NRN cardholders can keep the property owned by them when they were citizens of Nepal.
- Can Persons of Nepali origin sell their property and take back their money to foreign land?
- Yes they can do that following the process as prescribed in the prevailing law.
- What if NRN over stay in Nepal?
- The foreign nationals have to abide by the laws relating to immigration. If somebody whether he or she is an NRN or not, is found to have breached the law, they will be penalised as per the law. .
- Can NRN reacquire Nepali Citizenship?
- Nepal Citizenship Act 2006 Clause No. 11 states: If any Citizen of Nepal who has acquired foreign citizenship returns to reside in Nepal and submits a notification to the designated authority the evidence he or she has renounced his or her foreign citizenship shall be reinstated the Nepalese citizenship from the date of registering such evidence. In other words, the person concerned shall have to prove his/ her previous Nepali Nationality and the evidence that his/her foreign nationality has been annulled.
- Will persons who reacquire Nepali Citizenship be treated as the common citizens of Nepal and have access to all the rights provided to Nepali Citizens?
- Yes, the citizenship when reinstated is to the same category as his /her previous citizenship category.
- Is it necessary to have an NRN card to be member of NRNA?
- No, it is not necessary to have an NRN card to be a member of NRNA. It is only the eligibility criteria to acquire the NRN card and the NRNA membership (registered membership) are the same.
- How many types of membership is available in NRNA?
- There are four types of membership described under NRNA Constitution:
- General Member
- Registered Member
- Associate Member
- Honorary Member
- What is the highest decision making body of the NRNA?
- The highest decision making body of NRNA is its International General Assembly (IGA) which meets every two years. The IGA elects the NRNA leadership and also provides the direction to the NRN movement.
- What is International Coordination Council (ICC)?
- ICC is an executive body of NRNA elected by the IGA. It is the body that leads the NRN movement under the guidance of the decisions of the IGA.
- What is the Structure of NRNA ICC?
- The ICC comprises of following members elected at the International General Assembly.
- President- 1
- Vice President – 6 (including one Women)
- General Secretary – 1
- Secretary –6
- Treasurer – 1
- Joint Treasurer – 2
- Nominated Spokesperson – 1
- Women Coordinator – 1
- Youth Coordinator – 1
- Regional Coordinators – 6 (Representing Africa, Americas, Asia Pacific, Europe, Middle East, Oceania)
- Deputy Regional Coordinators – 6
- Regional Women Coordinator – 6
- Regional Youth Coordinator – 6
- Members – elected from each National Coordination Councils on the basis of their membership strength
- What is International Executive Secretariat (IES)?
- IES is the core body of NRNA formed to execute the activities of the ICC efficiently and effectively. It comprises of President, Vice Presidents, General Secretary, Secretaries, Treasurer, Joint Treasurer, Spokesperson, Women and Youth Coordinator of NRNA.
- What is Office Bearers (OB)?
- OB is the executive committee of NRNA which comprising of President, Vice Presidents, General Secretary, Secretaries, Treasurer, Joint Treasurer, Spokesperson, Women and Youth Coordinator, Regional Coordinators, Deputy Regional Coordinators, Regional Women and Youth Coordinators of NRNA.
- What is National Coordination Council (NCC)?
- NCC is the officially recognized committee of NRNA formed in different countries and territories where NRNs reside, NCC can be registered according to the local laws of the respective country.
- How can the NCC be formed?
- A minimum number of 10 NRNs residing in one country can form NCC by submitting application to NRNA ICC.
- How many Countries have NCCs?
- Till date NRNA NCC has been formed in 80 Countries and territories.
- What is the structure of NCC?
- NCCs generally comprise of President, Vice President, General Secretary, Secretary, Treasurer, Spokesperson, Women Coordinator, Youth Coordinator and committee members NCCs. The individual NCC may decide on their specific structure under the broad guidance of NRNA statute.
- What is Local Coordination Council?
- LCC is committee representing local states / provinces of the NCC established in respective country. Depending upon the requirements, NCC can form required numbers of LCCs representing states and regions within the respective country. NCC can assign or elect Coordinator for each LCC. The LCC Coordinators are responsible to report to NCC President in time bound manner. LCCs are generally formed in countries with diverse geography and a large number of NRNs in the country concerned.
- How can one be member of NRNA?
- Any adult NRN can be the member of NRNA. Membership to NRNA is through application to the NCCs of respective country by filling up the form and submitting stipulated fee.
- What are the benefits of becoming members of NRNA?
- The member will have status of registered member of NRNA.
- Identity card as NRNA member
- Access to different meeting, conference and programs of NCCs and ICC
- Participation in General Assembly of NCC and NRNA
- Opportunity to become official delegate of IGA and NGA
- Networking with the wider group of NRNs residing in different part of the world.
- Access to discounts and privileges accorded to NRNA member by various enterprises/insitutions
- What is NRNA Id Card?
- NRNA identity card is the card provided to the registered members of NRNA. . This card is being provided by NRNA ICC. This card can be utilized for privileges and discounts provided by many national and multinational companies to NRNA members.
- What is difference between NRN Card and NRNA identity card?
- NRN Card is an identity card provided by Nepal Government which is valid for 10 years where as NRNA identity card is card provided by NRNA ICC to the NRNA registered members through NCC verifying their position and involvement in the association, with the validity of two years.
- What is NRNA National General Assembly (NGA)?
- NGA is supreme body of the NCCs which provides directives to the Executive Committee of NCCs and elects the Executive Committee of NCCs. NGA is held every two years in respective countries, not more than months prior the IGA. NGA elects the NCC, ICC member/members representing the NCC and the delegates to participate at the IGA.
- What is difference between IGA & NGA?
- IGA is assembly of entire NRNA where delegates from various countries participate whereas the NGA is the assembly of NRNs in the concerned country
- What is NRNA Global Conference?
- NRNA Global Conference is major event of NRNA. It is jointly organised by NRNA with Nepal government and FNCCI. IGA is held in conjunction with global conference every two years. The conference involves thematic discussions on issues concerning development of Nepal and the NRN movement.
- Who can attend IGA?
- IGA is a closed event of NRNA, which is open to the ICC members, Patron Council, Advisors, Honorary Council Members and registered delegates from NCCs.
- Who can attend the Global Conference?
- Global Conference is open for all the delegates of IGA and interested participants who register for the conference by submitting the form and paying the stipulated fee. It is open for anyone who is interested on the issues being discussed at the global conference.
- What are the objectives of the Global Conference?
- Each global conference has its own theme and the objective are also specific to that conference, but overall objectives of the Global Conference is to bring the NRNs and the policy makers together to dwell on issues concerning Nepal and the NRN community. The Global Conference provides platform for the NRNs to be in touch with decision makers in Nepal and also to link with Nepalese living in other parts of the world. It is also an occasion for the NRN community to show solidarity with Nepal.
- How are the expenses of the Global Conference met?
- Global Conference is a self-sustaining event, the major expenses are meet through sponsorship fee raised for the event as well as the registration fee raised from participants
- What is NRNA Regional Meeting?
- Regional Meeting is the regular event of NRNA which is organized in different regions. The NCCs of particular regions are given responsibility to host the regional meeting.
- What is the objective of holding regional meeting?
- The regional meeting is hold to discuss on the specific issues concerning of NRNs residing in the particular region. The regional coordinators in consultation with the NCCsdecide on the date as well as the agenda of the regional meeting.
- What is Global Knowledge Convention?
- NRN Global Knowledge Convention is a platform that aims to bring together experts of various disciplines from Nepal and Nepali diaspora and explore Nepal’s needs for expert assistance to help the country move towards knowledge-based economy.
- What is the objective of holding Global Knowledge Convention?
- The objective of organising the knowledge convention is to bring the diaspora knowledge pool and the local knowledge pool together for use in the interest of the nation and the national economy. It is also meant to identify the priority areas for knowledge investment in the country.
- How many registered members NRNA has?
- The number of registered members of NRNA is estimated at 70,000 in the term 2017-19.
- What is the total number of NRNs at present 2018?
- The rough estimate of NRNs at present is around 50 lakhs . This figure does not include Nepali speaking nationals of and Nepali citizens living in SAARC member countries.
- What are the major projects and initiatives of NRNA in and outside Nepal?
The NRNA has undertaken many projects and initiatives since its establishment. These include:
Laprak Model Settlement Development Project
- NRNA Shankhamul Garden Project
- NRNA Headquater
- Ujyalo Nepal Foundation
- Nepal Open University
- NRNA Foundation
- Nepal House
- Nepal Festivals
- NRN Investment
- NRNA Academy
- Nepal Science Foundation
- Continuation of Nepali Citizenship
- NRN Investment Company
- NRN Microfinance Limited
- Human Resource Development and Training
- Blood Transfusion System
- Road Safety Program
- Agriculture Promotion
- Tourism Promotion
- Sindhuligadhi Masterplan Development Project
- Uterus Prolapse Project
- Women Empowerment and Skill Enhancement Project
- NRNA Bridhhasharam Galeshwor
- Kriya Putri Bhaban
- Janaki Temple Lightification
- Support to Unprivileged Children
- Support to disabled people
- Nepal Library Foundation
- Nepal Policy Institute (NPI)
- And many more
- What is the total amount of investment in Nepal done by NRNs?
- The rough research done by NRNA regarding direct investment made by the NRNs in nine selected districts was Rs 29,855 million by the end of 2014. estimation of direct investment is around Rs. 60,000 million. As Many NRNs invest in enterprises of their families and friends, it is rather difficult to estimate the the volume of total investment.
- What are the major sectors in Nepal where NRNs have invested?
The major sectors or fields of investment by the NRNs are:
- Service –Hotel Sector
- Hydro and Renewal Energy
- Travel and Trekking
- Information Technology
- Agriculture & Farming
- Health Sector
- Education and Skill Training
- Financial, Accounting and Banking
- Aviation & Transportation
- Migration Services and more.
Do NCCs help the Nepalese who fall victims in Foreign Country?
- Yes,NRNA has, to the extent possible, extended helping hand and humanitarian support to rescue and support the Nepalese stranded in foreign land. Such support is rendered by mobilizing the resources from the Nepali community in the country concerned and outside. As the demand for such support is huge, the NRNA policy is to provide such support after due diligence (examination) and support community efforts. People requiring such support should contact NCCs of respective country and put forward their application to the ICC through NCCs.
- What sort of activities NCCs perform in Foreign land?
The NCCs are involved in activities and functions like
- Uniting all the Nepalese residing in respective country
- Representing the Nepali community in the various civic bodies
- Extending support to Nepalese and local communities
- Promotion of Nepal, its products and services including tourism
- Promoting investment in Nepal
- Organising Nepali festivals, cultural programs
- Supporting Skill and Technology Transfer from respective country to Nepal
- Raising funds and contribute to relief and charities works in Nepal
- Providing skill enhancement programs and trainings to Nepalis
- Raising voice for the betterment of Nepalese community
- Lobbying for the welfare and Safety of Nepalese with highest authority of Nepal Government in respective country
- Supporting NRNA ICC in its efforts of pursing the interests of NRNs and Nepal
- Is there any separate committee to look after Youth Activities in NRNA?
- Yes, there is a separate youth forum led by Youth Coordinator. The youth coordinator is part of the IES
- Is there any Separate committee to look after Women Activities?
- Yes,NRNA has formed separate Women Forum to handle the issues related to Nepali Women. The Woman Forum is headed by a Woman coordinator, who is part of the IES. There is a position of a Vice President at ICC specially reserved for women.
- Who was the First President of NRNA?
- Upendra Mahato, is the founder President of NRNA. Currently he is Chief Patron of the organisation.
- Who is the current President of NRNA?
- Bhaban Bhatta is the current president of NRNA.
- Who have been the Presidents of NRNA?
Dr. Upendra Mahato ICC 2003-2009
Dev Man Hirachan ICC 2009-2011
Jiba Lamichhane ICC 2011-2013
Dr. Shesh Ghale ICC 2013-2017
Bhaban Bhatta ICC 2017-2019
Kumar Panta ICC 2019-2021
- Who was the first Women Coordinator of NRNA?
- Ranjana Udas is the first woman coordinator of NRNA.
- Where is the Secretariat of NRNA?
- The NRNA Secretariat operates from its own Head Quarter building located at Baluwatar, Kathmandu adjacent to the official residence of the speaker of the lower house of Parliament (Sabhamukh Niwas) .
- What kind of services the NRNA Secretariat provide?
- The NRNA secretariat undertakes all activities which are generally undertaken by the secretariat of an association / organization. It is the contact point for the association in Nepal.
Following are the main activities undertaken by the NRNA Secretariat.
- Organize different Events and conferences of the NRNA
- Act as the focal contact point in Kathmandu Nepal
- Disseminate relevant information to all the registered members as well as government and non-government agencies
- Draft position papers of NRNA
- Keep database of the registered members and NRNs residing abroad
- Raise and manage funds for carrying out different tasks of NRNA
- Facilitate executive members in lobbying major issues related to NRNA and NRNs
- Provide secretarial and logistics support to the NRNA members
- Maintain official records of activities and proceeding
- Maintain and manage accounts and finances of NRNA
- How does NRNA meet its expenses including running of the Secretariat?
- NRNA runs its secretariat through membership fee collected from different registered members, proceeds of the sponsored events, fund raising events and contribution from members. The fund raised for specific purposes (e.g. Charity, HQ Building Construction, etc.) is spent only for that specific purpose, whereas the membership fee and other income are used for meeting the general expenses including the expenses of the Secretariat.